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Civilisations

Page history last edited by Dmitry Sokolov 4 years, 9 months ago

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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Civilization

A civilization (UK and US) or civilisation (UK variant) is any complex society characterized by urban development, social stratification imposed by a cultural elite, symbolic systems of communication (for example, writing systems), and a perceived separation from and domination over the natural environment.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8]

Civilizations are intimately associated with and often further defined by other socio-politico-economic characteristics, including centralization, the domestication of both humans and other organisms, specialization of labour, culturally ingrained ideologies of progress and supremacism, monumental architecture, taxation, societal dependence upon farming and expansionism.[2][3][4][6][7][8] Historically, a civilization was a so-called "advanced" culture in contrast to more supposedly primitive cultures.[1][3][4][9] In this broad sense, a civilization contrasts with non-centralized tribal societies, including the cultures of nomadic pastoralists, Neolithic societies or hunter-gatherers. As an uncountable noun, civilization also refers to the process of a society developing into a centralized, urbanized, stratified structure. Civilizations are organized in densely populated settlements divided into hierarchical social classes with a ruling elite and subordinate urban and rural populations, which engage in intensive agriculture, mining, small-scale manufacture and trade. Civilization concentrates power, extending human control over the rest of nature, including over other human beings.[10]

The earliest emergence of civilizations is generally associated with the final stages of the Neolithic Revolution, culminating in the relatively rapid process of urban revolution and state formation, a political development associated with the appearance of a governing elite. The earlier neolithic technology and lifestyle was established first in the Middle East (for example at Göbekli Tepe, from about 9,130 BCE), and later in the Yellow River and Yangtze basins in China (for example the Pengtoushan culture from 7,500 BCE), and later spread. Similar pre-civilized "neolithic revolutions" also began independently from 7,000 BCE in such places as northwestern South America (the Norte Chico civilization)[11] and Mesoamerica. These were among the six civilizations worldwide that arose independently.[12]Mesopotamia is the site of the earliest developments of the Neolithic Revolution from around 10,000 BCE, with civilizations developing from 6,500 years ago. This area has been identified as having "inspired some of the most important developments in human history including the invention of the wheel, the development of cursive script, mathematics, astronomy and agriculture."[13]

See Also


Links  

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Civilizations

See also: Category:Empires.

Subcategories

A

`Aegean civilizations (9 C, 27 P)

African civilizations (7 C, 27 P)

Andean civilizations (10 C, 55 P)

Arab (8 C, 10 P)

`    Aztec (14 C, 21 P, 1 F)

`B

`Babylonia (11 C, 50 P)

Books about civilizations (7 C, 31 P)

`    Byzantine culture (11 C, 24 P)

`C

`    Classical civilizations (4 C, 1 P)

`D

`E

`Ebla (1 C, 13 P)

Ancient Egypt (24 C, 76 P, 1 F)

`    Etruscans (11 C, 22 P)

`F

`    Fictional civilizations (1 C, 11 P)

`G

`    Ancient Greece (28 C, 86 P)

`H

`Hattians (3 C, 3 P)

History books about civilization (1 C, 13 P)

Hittites (9 C, 9 P)

`    Hurrians (6 C, 7 P)

`M

`Maya civilization (20 C, 40 P)

`    Civilization museums (10 C, 10 P)

`P

`    Phoenicia (10 C, 19 P)

`R

`    Ancient Rome (18 C, 9 P)

`S

`    Sumer (5 C, 38 P)

`T

`    Teotihuacan (1 C, 11 P)

`U

`    Ugarit (4 C, 7 P)

`V

`Vedic period (3 C, 24 P)

Ancient Vietnam (3 C, 31 P)

`    Viking Age (16 C, 19 P)

`W

`Western culture (20 C, 40 P)

Pages

 

`    Civilization

`A

`    Aegean civilizations

    Andean civilizations

    Ayarmaca

    Aztec

`B

`    Babylonia

`C

`    Centers of power

    Civilisation (TV series)

    Ancient Rome

    Civilized core

    Cradle of civilization

`D

`    Dialogue Among Civilizations

    Dilmun

`E

`    Early Dynastic Period (Mesopotamia)

    Eastern Party

    Elam

`G

`    Gandhara

    Global citizens movement

`I

`    Inamgaon

    Indus Valley Civilisation

    Industrial civilization

`K

`    Kingdom of Larantuka

`M

`    Mesopotamia

    Mississippian culture

`O

`    Olmec

`P

`    Phoenicia

    Planetary health

    Post-classical history

    Proto-Elamite

`R

`    River valley civilization

    Role of Christianity in civilization

`S

`    User:SomeGuyWhoRandomlyEdits/sandbox

    Sumer

`V

`    Vedic period

    Viking Age

`    Template:Territorial evolution of the world

Pages in Other Languages

 

Categories:

Anthropological categories of peoples

Cultural geography

Cultural history

Theories of history

 

 

 

 

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