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Properties of Systems

Page history last edited by Dmitry Sokolov 2 years, 5 months ago


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The Whole is Greater Than the Sum of Its Parts

From the definition of a system, "A system is a set of interacting or interdependent component parts forming a complex or intricate whole." Just a set of independent parts doesn't create a system. Interaction and interdependence is required.

Also derived from the Emergence concept: "In philosophy, systems theory, science, and art, emergence occurs when "the whole is greater than the sum of the parts," meaning the whole has properties its parts do not have. These properties come about because of interactions among the parts. In mathematical shorthand, W = P + I." (Wikipedia)

Controlled System Must Be Less Complex Than Controlling System

In summary, the complexity of the collective behavior must be smaller than the complexity of the controlling individual. A group of individuals whose collective behavior is controlled by a single individual cannot behave in a more complex way than the individual who is exercising the control. Hierarchical control structures are symptomatic of collective behavior that is no more complex than one individual. Comparing an individual human being with the hierarchy as an entirety, the hierarchy amplifies the scale of the behavior of an individual, but does not increase its complexity.

System Cannot Be Described by the Rules and Laws of the System

According to the Incompleteness Theorem, a system cannot be non-contradictory described by the rules and laws the system is based on. The system has to be extended with extra rules to be adequately described: "The second incompleteness theorem, an extension of the first, shows that such a system cannot demonstrate its own consistency."

Systems are Defined by Context

Data or intelligence without context isn’t useful. Different actions in different localities and context will have different associations with different objects and subjects. Therefore, systems are not something objective and existing independently from their creators.

Nature is Not A System


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Nature is Not A System

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